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The wave equation has become the standard method for predicting the drivability of piles, along with estimating stresses during driving. However, it's necessary to have some idea of the pile's ultimate capacity and driving resistance, so we are bundling the download of WEAP87 with SPILE, the FHWA program for estimating pile ultimate resistance.

WEAP87

WEAP (Wave Equation Analysis of Pile Driving) is the program first developed in the 1970's by Goble & Associates. It and its successors have since become the most commonly used wave equation program for the analysis of driven piles during driving. We present here WEAP87, the last freely released version of the program.

Below: bearing graph screen from WEAP87.

SPILE

A program for estimating the vertical load capacity of driven piles for both cohesionless (using Nordlund's method) and cohesive ones (using Tomlinson's Method.) The program is interactive and designed to analyse multilayered soils. It is primarily intended for small (less than 36") piles, such as H-beams, concrete and pipe piles. Originally developed by the FHWA. Documentation is not included; the methodology behind it is described in detail in the second volume of the FHWA Soils and Foundations Manual.

Downloads for WEAP87 and SPILE

We also have a printed manual available for WEAP87. You can click here for ordering information.

WEAP87 and SPILE are DOS programs; we have some resources about that as follows:

Except for the output graphic most of the output of WEAP87 is either text on the screen or text files. All of SPILE's output is text.

To load and start the programs do the following:

  1. Create a directory for WEAP87 and SPILE.
  2. Download the ZIP file into the directory you have created.
  3. Using an appropriate program, extract the files into the same directory. Each program is in a different directory in the compressed file, to make it easy to keep them separate.

Keep in mind that WEAP87 and SPILE are separate programs; you can use one or both of them as you need to. When applying ultimate capacities computed by SPILE to WEAP87, keep in mind that ultimate capacity and driving resistance are not the same; visit the Books on Driven Piles page for more information on this and other topics related to the wave equation and pile capacity.

Other Information and Newer Programs in the WEAP Family

The Analysis of Pile Driving: A State of the Art

G.G. Goble; F. Rausche and G.E. Likins

During recent years wave analyses, or analyses of the elastic pile , were utilized with increasing frequency for both pile design and construction control. These methods range from purely analytical to experimental. They were developed to answer one or more of the following questions:

  1. What is the static bearing capacity of the pile given observations taken during pile driving?
  2. Can the pile be driven given a complete description of pile, soil and hammer properties (driveabilty)?
  3. Is the pile structurally sound (pile integrity) ?
  4. What are the stresses in the pile during driving?
  5. What is the efficiency of the driving system?

The following discussion presents a review of available analytical methods and gives examples both of equipment used for measurements and of results obtained.

The Applicability of the WEAP-86 Pile Capacity Prediction method for Conneticut Soils and Behaviour of a Sheetpile Wall for Stabilisation of a Slope in Portland

Richard P. Long, Kenneth R. Demars, William A. Shaheen and Viroj Mekagaroon
University of Conneticut
October 1988

The engineer requires reliable methods for predicting the capacity of piles as driven in the field. Early approaches used semi-empirical methods for making these predictions. The success of these early attempts was mixed. The Federal Highway Administration sponsored research to develop better methcx1s for predicting pile capacity and a method evolved based on the work of Smith (1962) using the wave equation analogy as a means of modelling the pile driving operation and the resulting capacity of the pile. All mathematical models must be calibrated to field conditions in an area. The Connecticut Department of Transportation has conducted many load tests on piles over the years. In this phase of the project, pile capacity as predicted by WEAP was compared to the capacity measured by field load tests.

A Brief History of the Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles

Mohamad Hussein and George Goble

A summary of the early scientific research that forms the basis of the development of one-dimensional wave mechanics is first summarized. Beginning with the work of Donnell in the early 20th Century the subsequent analytical and computational research is reviewed in some detail. The early “wave equation” computer programs beginning in the 1940’s are described and discussed including the applications that motivated the entire development up to the present. Early measurement techniques are reviewed briefly up to the development of the resistance strain gage. This device made possible routine measurements of the force wave in the pile. The development of an accurate and reliable accelerometer was somewhat slower than the force measurement capability but usable devices were available by the time of the Michigan pile tests of 1960. The modern era of pile measurements and analysis began in earnest with the research at Case Western Reserve University. The methods for dynamic pile capacity predictions are summarized up to the present. It is estimated that today over 5000 job sites are tested and analyzed annually. The history of low strain integrity testing is presented briefly and the history of the International Stress Wave Conferences is summarized. Finally a list of American codes and standards relating to this topic is included.

A Critical Examination of the Wave Equation

F. Rausche and G.G. Goble

A recent research project sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration produced a new wave equation computer program for the analysis of pile driving (WEAP). While the primary purpose of developing this program was to provide a better model for diesel hammers a number of other improvements were included and an extensive correlation study with dynamic measurements was made. This study together with the authors' extensive field experience pointed out several conditions where wave equation predictions will be inaccurate and unreliable. In this paper the capbilities of the WEAP program will be compared with other commonly used programs. The various factors which can influence the accuracy of a wave equation analysis are considered, evaluated and discussed. The specific topics included are: pile model, soil model, hammer model, and static soil analysis.

Critical Tension Stresses

G.G. Goble

When reinforced or prestressed concrete piles are driven in easy driving, tension stresses are reflected from the pile tip back onto the downward traveling compression stresses. This can produce resultant tension stresses in the pile that can be sufficiently large enough to cause tension cracking of the concrete. This problem can be analyzed by use of a "Wave Equation" analysis. If measurements are made they are usually made with transducers located near the pile top. However, the critical tension stress location will not be at the gage location so the magnitude of maximum tension stresses cannot be readily determined. In this paper a procedure will be presented for determining the maximum tension stress in the pile given measurements at the pile top. In addition a procedure will be discussed for calculating maximum tension stress using a closed form solution of a continuous model of the pile.

Load and Resistance Factor Design for Piles

G.G. Goble

An overview of the concept of LRFD as applied to driven piles. Consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the method over ASD are considered. Specific situations, such as the use of dynamic measurements, are also considered in detail.

The Performance of Pile Driving Systems Inspection Manual

F. Rausche, G. E. Likins, G. G. Goble, M. Hussein
FHWA/RD-86/160
December 1986

A study was undertaken on the performance of pile driving systems and the existing technology for the measurement of performance parameters was reviewed. This report is an inspection manual for use by pile driving inspectors and engineers to ascertain that the pile hammer conforms to certain minimum standards, and to record observations on hammer and driving'system behavior. The manual considers only impact hammers; i.e., a large weight is alternately being raised and then accelerated downward, impacting against the pile top. Vibratory hammers, which operate on a different principle altogether, have been excluded from this manual. In addition to pile impact hammers, the manual addresses the complete driving system to include cushions, helmets, and leads. Also included as an aid to the inspector/ engineer, are comprehensive field inspection data forms.

Selection of Minimum Cost Driving Systems

G.G. Goble and Eric Parker
Piletalk Seminar, Associated Pile & Fitting Corporation, Miami Beach
March 1978

The estimation of pile driving costs remains today a very inexact activity not greatly changed over the past half century. Contractors tend to limit their work to a particular geographical region relying on equipment of a familiar type. If a job must be estimated, the contractor will usually depend more on previous experience than on anything revealed by normal subsurface investigations. Equipment selection is usually made on a completely subjective basis, with emphasis placed on the use of driving systems owned by the contractor. If difficulty occurs on the job and the piles cannot be efficiently advanced, the typical result is quarrels hetween the contractor and the engineer, large cost overruns and litigation.

To avoid these problems, engineers have sometimes tended to specify the job more tightly.Commonly, however, due to the engineer's lack of knowledge of pile driving, he specifies a condition that cannot be driven. Now the contractor is in an excellent position to obtain extra payment. In the past decade techniques have become available that can convert this very artistic approach to a scientific one. It is possible today for a contractor to make rational predictions of driving resistance. These predictions, while still of limited reliability, are at least better than any other available approach.

A Short Introduction to Continuous and Discrete Wave Mechanics

Frank Rausche
The Second Seminar on The Dynamics of Pile Driving
Boulder, Colorado
March 24-25, 1981

In this discussion of impact problems, the wave mechanics of both continuous and discrete pile models are illustrated. The equation which will be derived should be helpful in the understanding of the pile driving process, the Case Method, CAPWAP, WEAP, pile integrity testing and data intermpretation. Examples and some useful numerical values will be given. Always a uniform pile with linear properties will be assumed except where otherwise noted.

Tests on H Piles Driven to Rock with Five Different Hammers

G.G. Goble, G. Likins and W. Teferra
Piletalk Seminar, Associated Pile & Fitting Corporation, Miami Beach
March 1978

In 1972 the Ohio Departrnent of Transportation changed their pile driving specification to read, essentially, that H-piles driven to rock should be driven to a blow count o f 20 BPI (blows per inch), independent of hammer size or any other consideration. Since this change in specification was controversial, a research project was undertaken to investigate it at Case Western Reserve University under the sponsorship of the Ohio Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of steel H-piles driven according to the specification under a variety of conditions. A variety of site and hammers were used; at each location the piles were driven to the 20 BPI criterion and the results evaluated. Extensive dynamic measurements were made throughout the tests.

Note: although many state DOT's and other agencies have adopted refusal blow counts greater than 120 BPF (10 BPI,) except for offshore hammers, Vulcan never warranted its hammers past the 120 BPF limit.

Wave Equation Analysis of Pile Driving (WEAP Program)

FHWA-IP-76-14
(Also WESWEAP, Program 741-F3-R0010)
July 1976

The motivation for the preparation of the WEAP program came from problems which were experienced by the New York Departrment of Transportation when they attempted to implement routine wave equation analyses into their pile driving practice. They used a program prepared by the Texas Transportation Institute . In spite of the fact that this program was probably the most widely used wave equation program in the United States, serious difficulties were encountered in that unrealistic stresses were sometimes obtained for piles driven by diesel hammers.

The authors of this report have performed extensive research studies on pile driving emphasizing the measurement of force and acceleration during driving. These measurements involving piles driven by all types of hammers have been made for several states including New York. In order to take advantage of these measurements, the Federal Highway Administration contracted with the authors t o prepare a wave equation program which would accurately model the diesel hammer. Several years had passed since the TTI Program was developed, so it could be expected that other general improvements could be introduced into the program for all types of harmers. Finally the large volume pf available measurements of force and acceleration at the pile top were used to test the program performance.

This report is divided into four volumes:

  1. The first presents a general discussion of tine use of the wave equation and how this particular program models the hammer-pile-soil system. Emhasis is placed on a discussion of the operation of diesel hamers and how that operation is modeled by WEAP.
  2. The second volume provides a description of program input and output and can serve as a user's manual for the program. It is strongly recommended that all users read Volume I prior to the User's Manual so that they will understand the assumptions contained in the program and how it is intended that it be used.
  3. The third volume was prepared to aid the computer operator during the initial stages of program and data file loading. It also contains a flow chart which may be of interest to those users who want to study the program in greater detail.
  4. The fourth volume contains the three parts of a lecture which is also available in the form of a tape/slide show. The contents of this narrative report deal with background, models and applications of the Wave Equation.

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